Toamasina [toˈmasinə̥], meaning "like salt" or "salty", unofficially and in French also Tamatave, is the capital of the Atsinanana region on the east coast of Madagascar on the Indian Ocean. The city is the chief seaport of the country, situated 215 km (134 mi) northeast of its capital and biggest city Antananarivo, near the centre of the eastern coast at 18 10 S, 49 32 E. According to the 2013 official estimate, Toamasina had a population of 274,667. The city is served by Toamasina Airport.

Toamasina features a tropical rainforest climate under the Köppen climate classification. While Toamasina has no true dry season month where less than 60 millimetres (2.4 inches) of precipitation (on average) falls, the seaport has noticeably wetter and drier periods of the year. September–November is the driest period of the year, while February–April is the wettest time of the year. Average temperatures are relatively constant throughout the course of the year, though it is slightly cooler in the months of July and August, where average highs hover around 24 °C (75 °F) and warmer in the months of January and February, where high temperatures on average reaches 30 °C (86 °F). Toamasina averages roughly 3,368.2 millimetres (132.61 inches) of precipitation annually.

As the youngest of the major oceans, the Indian Ocean has active spreading ridges that are part of the worldwide system of mid-ocean ridges. In the Indian Ocean these spreading ridges meet at the Rodrigues Triple Point with the Central Indian Ridge, including the Carlsberg Ridge, separating the African Plate from the Indian Plate; the Southwest Indian Ridge separating the African Plate from the Antarctic Plate; and the Southeast Indian Ridge separating the Australian Plate from the Antarctic Plate. The Central Ridge runs north on the in-between across of the Arabian Peninsula and Africa into the Mediterranean Sea.

A series of ridges and seamount chains produced by hotspots pass over the Indian Ocean. The Réunion hotspot (active 70–40 million years ago) connects Réunion and the Mascarene Plateau to the Chagos-Laccadive Ridge and the Deccan Traps in north-western India; the Kerguelen hotspot (100–35 million years ago) connects the Kerguelen Islands and Kerguelen Plateau to the Ninety East Ridge and the Rajmahal Traps in north-eastern India; the Marion hotspot (100–70 million years ago) possibly connects Prince Edward Islands to the Eighty Five East Ridge. These hotspot tracks have been broken by the still active spreading ridges mentioned above.

The world's earliest civilizations in Mesopotamia (beginning with Sumer), ancient Egypt, and the Indian subcontinent (beginning with the Indus Valley civilization), which began along the valleys of the Tigris-Euphrates, Nile and Indus rivers respectively, all developed around the Indian Ocean. Civilizations soon arose in Persia (beginning with Elam) and later in Southeast Asia (beginning with Funan).

During Egypt's first dynasty (c. 3000 BCE), sailors were sent out onto its waters, journeying to Punt, thought to be part of present-day Somalia. Returning ships brought gold and myrrh. The earliest known maritime trade between Mesopotamia and the Indus Valley (c. 2500 BC) was conducted along the Indian Ocean. Phoenicians of the late 3rd millennium BCE may have entered the area, but no settlements resulted.

The Indian Ocean's relatively calmer waters opened the areas bordering it to trade earlier than the Atlantic or Pacific oceans. The powerful monsoons also meant ships could easily sail west early in the season, then wait a few months and return eastwards. This allowed ancient Indonesian peoples to cross the Indian Ocean to settle in Madagascar around 1 CE.

By the time Andrianampoinimerina's son Radama I had ascended the throne upon his father's death in 1810, Antananarivo was the largest and most economically important city on the island, with a population of over 80,000 inhabitants. Radama opened the city to the first European settlers, artisan missionaries of the London Missionary Society (LMS) who arrived in 1820 and opened the city's first public schools. James Cameron introduced brickmaking to the island and created Lake Anosy to generate hydraulic power for industrial manufacturing. Radama established a military training ground on a flat plain called Mahamasina at the base of Analamanga near the lake. Radama's subjugation of other Malagasy ethnic groups brought nearly two thirds of the island under his control. The British diplomats who concluded trade treaties with Radama recognized him as the "ruler of Madagascar", a position he and his successors claimed despite never managing to impose their authority over the larger portion of the island's south. Thereafter, Merina sovereigns declared Antananarivo the capital of the entire island.

Antananarivo is situated approximately 1,280 m (4,199 ft) above sea level in the central highlands region of Madagascar, at 18.55' South and 47.32' East. The city is located centrally along the north-south axis of the country, and east of center along the east-west axis. It is 160 km (99 mi) from the east coast and 330 km (210 mi) from the west coast. The city occupies a commanding position on the summit and slopes of a long, narrow, rocky ridge extending north and south for about 4 km (2 mi) and rising to about 200 m (660 ft) above the extensive rice fields to the west.

The official boundaries of the city of Antananarivo encompass an urban area of approximately 86.4 km2 (33.4 sq mi). It was founded 1,480 m (4,860 ft) above sea level at the apex of three hill ranges that converge in a Y form, 200 m (660 ft) above the surrounding Betsimitatatra paddy fields and the grassy plains beyond. The city gradually spread out from this central point to cover the hillsides; by the late 19th century it had expanding to the flat terrain at the base of the hills. These plains are susceptible to flooding during the rainy season; they are drained by the Ikopa River, which skirts the capital to the south and west. The western slopes and plains, being best protected from cyclone winds originating over the Indian Ocean, were settled before those to the east.

Industry accounts for around 13 percent of Madagascar's gross domestic product (GDP) and is largely concentrated in Antananarivo. Key industries include soap production, food and tobacco processing, brewing, textiles, and leather manufacturing, providing employment to around 5.5 percent of the workforce. The city's extensive infrastructure and its role as the economic center of the country make it a favorable location for large businesses. Business owners are drivers of growth for the city; in 2010, 60 percent of all new buildings in the country were located in Antananarivo, most of which were built for commercial purposes. Unemployment and poverty are also growing, fueled in part by an inadequately skilled and unprofessional workforce and the lack of a comprehensive national strategy for economic development since 2009. Formal sector job growth has not kept pace with population growth, and many residents earn their livelihood in the informal sector as street vendors and laborers. Under Ravalomanana, construction in the capital increased sharply; twelve new supermarkets were constructed in two years.

The residents of urban areas—in particular Antananarivo—have been hardest hit by economic downturns and economic policy shifts. The national economic crisis in the mid-1970s and early 1980s, and the World Bank's imposition of a structural adjustment program lowered living standards for the average resident of the city. The end of state subsidies, rapid inflation, higher taxes, widespread impoverishment and the decline of the middle class were especially evident in Antananarivo, as was the growing wealth of a tiny political and economic elite in the city. In 2007, two thirds of Antananarivo residents had access to electricity, while ten percent of households owned a scooter, car or other motor vehicle. Running water was installed in fewer than 25 percent of homes, small restaurants and businesses in 2007, necessitating the collection of water from household wells or neighborhood pumps and the use of outdoor pit toilets detached from the main building. In 2007, 60 percent of households were using shared public latrines. Most homes use charcoal for daily cooking; stocks of charcoal and rice are kept in the kitchen. The average city household spends just under half of its budget on food. Owing to its increasingly high cost, consumption of meat by city residents has sharply declined since the 1970s; the urban poor eat meat on holidays only once or twice a year.

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e w s x f g f v f g t y h g b s d j m j k i u j h y t g b g f rt e d s d f s t g f v f f a s w e d s x f g f v f s d g f v b g h n h y u j k i o l k i u j m n j h y t g f rt f v d f s y h g t rt f rt e d e w s x f g f v f g t y h g b s d j m j k i u j h y t g b g f rt e d s d f s t g f v f f a s w e d s x f g f v f s d g f v b g h n h y u j k i o l k i u j m n j h y t g f rt f v d f s y h g t rt f rt e d e w s x f g f v f g t y h g b s d j m j k i u j h y t g b g f rt e d s d f s t g f v f f a s w e d s x f g f v f s d g f v b g h n h y u j k i o l k i u j m n j h y t g f rt f v d f s y h g t rt f rt e d e w s x f g f v f g t y h g b s d j m j k i u j h y t g b g f rt e d s d f s t g f v f f a s w e d s x f g f v f s d g f v b g h n h y u j k i o l k i u j m n j h y t g f rt f v d f s y h g t rt f rt e d e w s x f g f v f g t y h g b s d j m j k i u j h y t g b g f rt e d s d f s t g f v f f a s w e d s x f g f v f s d g f v b g h n h y u j k i o l k i u j m n j h y t g f rt f v d f s y h g t rt f rt e d e w s x f g f v f g t y h g b s d j m j k i u j h y t g b g f rt e d s d f s t g f v f f a s w e d s x f g f v f s d g f v b g h n h y u j k i o l k i u j m n j h y t g f rt f v d f s y h g t rt f rt e d e w s x f g f v f g t y h g b s d j m j k i u j h y t g b g f rt e d s d f s t g f v f f a s w e d s x f g f v f s d g f v b g h n h y u j k i o l k i u j m n j h y t g f rt f v d f s y h g t rt f rt e d e w s x f g f v f g t y h g b s d j m j k i u j h y t g b g f rt e d s d f s t g f v f f a s w e d s x f g f v f s d g f v b g h n h y u j k i o l k i u j m n j h y t g f rt f v d f s y h g t rt f rt e d e w s x f g f v f g t y h g b s d j m j k i u j h y t g b g f rt e d s d f s t g f v f f a s w e d s x f g f v f s d g f v b g h n h y u j k i o l k i u j m n j h y t g f rt f v d f s y h g t rt f rt e d e w s x f g f v f g t y h g b s d j m j k i u j h y t g b g f rt e d s d f s t g f v f f a s w e d s x f g f v f s d g f v b g h n h y u j k i o l k i u j m n j h y t g f rt f v d f s y h g t rt f rt e d e w s x f g f v f g t y h g b s d j m j k i u j h y t g b g f rt e d s d f s t g f v f f a s w e d s x f g f v f s d g f v b g h n h y u j k i o l k i u j m n j h y t g f rt f v d f s y h g t rt f rt e d e w s x f g f v f g t y h g b s d j m j k i u j h y t g b g f rt e d s d f s t g f v f f a s w e d s x f g f v f s d g f v b g h n h y u j k i o l k i u j m n j h y t g f rt f v d f s y h g t rt f rt e d e w s x f g f v f g t y h g b s d j m j k i u j h y t g b g f rt e d s d f s t g f v f f a s w e d s x f g f v f s d g f v b g h n h y u j k i o l k i u j m n j h y t g f rt f v d f s y h g t rt f rt e d e w s x f g f v f g t y h g b s d j m j k i u j h y t g b g f rt e d s d f s t g f v f f a s w e d s x f g f v f s d g f v b g h n h y u j k i o l k i u j m n j h y t g f rt f v d f s y h g t rt f rt e d e w s x f g f v f g t y h g b s d j m j k i u j h y t g b g f rt e d s d f s t g f v f f a s w e d s x f g f v f s d g f v b g h n h y u j k i o l k i u j m n j h y t g f rt f v d f s y h g t rt f rt e d e w s x f g f v f g t y h g b s d j m j k i u j h y t g b g f rt e d s d f s t g f v f f a s w e d s x f g f v f s d g f v b g h n h y u j k i o l k i u j m n j h y t g f rt f v d f s y h g t rt f rt e d e w s x f g f v f g t y h g b s d j m j k i u j h y t g b g f rt e d s d f s t g f v f f a s w e d s x f g f v f s d g f v b g h n h y u j k i o l k i u j m n j h y t g f rt f v d f s y h g t rt f rt e d e w s x f g f v f g t y h g b s d j m j k i u j h y t g b g f rt e d s d f s t g f v f f a s w e d s x f g f v f s d g f v b g h n h y u j k i o l k i u j m n j h y t g f rt f v d f s y h g t rt f rt e d e w s x f g f v f g t y h g b s d j m j k i u j h y t g b g f rt e d s d f s t g f v f f a s w e d s x f g f v f s d g f v b g h n h y u j k i o l k i u j m n j h y t g f rt f v d f s y h g t rt f rt e d e w s x f g f v f g t y h g b s d j m j k i u j h y t g b g f rt e d s d f s t g f v f f a s w e d s x f g f v f s d g f v b g h n h y u j k i o l k i u j m n j h y t g f rt f v d f s y h g t rt f rt e d e w s x f g f v f g t y h g b s d j m j k i u j h y t g b g f rt e d s d f s t g f v f f a s w e d s x f g f v f s d g f v b g h n h y u j k i o l k i u j m n j h y t g f rt f v d f s y h g t rt f rt e d e w s x f g f v f g t y h g b s d j m j k i u j h y t g b g f rt e d s d f s t g f v f f a s w e d s x f g f v f s d g f v b g h n h y u j k i o l k i u j m n j h y t g f rt f v d f s y h g t rt f rt e d e w s x f g f v f g t y h g b s d j m j k i u j h y t g b g f rt e d s d f s t g f v f f a s w e d s x f g f v f s d g f v b g h n h y u j k i o l k i u j m n j h y t g f rt f v d f s y h g t rt f rt e d e w s x f g f v f g t y h g b s d j m j k i u j h y t