Leiden (/ˈlaɪdən/; Dutch pronunciation: [ˈlɛi̯də(n)] (About this sound listen); in English and archaic Dutch also Leyden) is a city and municipality in the province of South Holland, Netherlands. The municipality of Leiden had a population of 123,856 in August 2017, but the city forms one densely connected agglomeration with its suburbs Oegstgeest, Leiderdorp, Voorschoten and Zoeterwoude with 206,647 inhabitants. The Netherlands Central Bureau of Statistics (CBS) further includes Katwijk in the agglomeration which makes the total population of the Leiden urban agglomeration 270,879, and in the larger Leiden urban area also Teylingen, Noordwijk, and Noordwijkerhout are included with in total 348,868 inhabitants. Leiden is located on the Oude Rijn, at a distance of some 20 kilometres (12 miles) from The Hague to its south and some 40 km (25 mi) from Amsterdam to its north. The recreational area of the Kaag Lakes (Kagerplassen) lies just to the northeast of Leiden.

A university city since 1575, Leiden has been one of Europe's most prominent scientific centres for more than four centuries. Leiden is a typical university city, university buildings are scattered throughout the city and the many students from all over the world give the city a bustling, vivid and international atmosphere. Many important scientific discoveries have been made here, giving rise to Leiden’s motto: ‘City of Discoveries’. The city houses Leiden University, the oldest university of the Netherlands, and Leiden University Medical Center. Leiden University is one of Europe’s top universities, with thirteen Nobel Prize winners. It is a member of the League of European Research Universities and positioned highly in all international academic rankings. It is twinned with Oxford, the location of the United Kingdom's oldest university. Leiden University and Leiden University of Applied Sciences (Leidse Hogeschool) together have around 35,000 students. Modern scientific medical research and teaching started in the early 18th century in Leiden with Boerhaave.

In 1572, the city sided with the Dutch revolt against Spanish rule and played an important role in the Eighty Years' War. Besieged from May until October 1574 by the Spanish, Leiden was relieved by the cutting of the dikes, thus enabling ships to carry provisions to the inhabitants of the flooded town. As a reward for the heroic defence of the previous year, the University of Leiden was founded by William I of Orange in 1575. Yearly on 3 October, the end of the siege is still celebrated in Leiden. Tradition tells that the citizens were offered the choice between a university and a certain exemption from taxes and chose the university. The siege is notable also for being the first instance in Europe of the issuance of paper money, with paper taken from prayer books being stamped using coin dies when silver ran out.

Leiden is also known as the place where the Pilgrims (as well as some of the first settlers of New Amsterdam) lived (and operated a printing press) for a time in the early 17th century before their departure to Massachusetts and New Amsterdam in the New World.

In the 17th century, Leiden prospered, in part because of the impetus to the textile industry by refugees from Flanders. While the city had lost about a third of its 15,000 citizens during the siege of 1574, it quickly recovered to 45,000 inhabitants in 1622, and may have come near to 70,000 circa 1670. During the Dutch Golden Era, Leiden was the second largest city of Holland, after Amsterdam. Particularly due to the work by Herman Boerhaave (1668–1738), it played a crucial role in the establishment of modern chemistry and medicine.

The chief of Leiden's numerous churches are the Hooglandse Kerk (or the church of St Pancras, built in the 15th century and containing a monument to Pieter Adriaansz. van der Werff) and the Pieterskerk (church of St Peter (1315)) with monuments to Scaliger, Boerhaave and other famous scholars. From a historical perspective the Marekerk is interesting too. Arent van 's Gravesande designed that church in 1639. Other fine examples of his work in Leiden are in the Stedelijk Museum De Lakenhal (the municipal museum of fine arts), and the Bibliotheca Thysiana. The growing city needed another church and the Marekerk was the first Protestant church to be built in Leiden (and in Holland) after the Reformation. It is an example of Dutch Classicism. In the drawings by Van 's Gravesande the pulpit is the centrepiece of the church. The pulpit is modelled after the one in the Nieuwe Kerk at Haarlem (designed by Jacob van Campen). The building was first used in 1650, and is still in use. The Heilige Lodewijkkerk is first catholic church in Leiden that was built after the Reformation. This church was given to the Catholics after the gunpowder explosion in 1807, which killed 150 inhabitants and destroyed a large part of the city centre. The 'Waalse Kerk' (Breestraat 63) was originally part of the Katharina Hospital. In 1584 it became the church of Protestant refugees from the Southern Netherlands (Brugge) and France. Later churches in the centre include the St. Joseph in expressionistic style.

After the defeat of the French in 1813, this organisation remained unchanged for a year or so. When the 1814 Constitution was introduced, most borders were restored to their situation before the French period. The north and south of Holland were reunited as the province of Holland. However, the division hadn't completely been undone. Since its re-establishment in 1814, Holland had always had two King's Commissioners, one for the north and one for the south. Even though the province had been reunited, the two areas were still treated differently in some ways and the idea of dividing Holland remained alive. In 1840, it was decided to once again split Holland into North and South Holland, because the province of Holland was deemed too dominant in area, population and wealth. In the late 20th and early 21st centuries, three municipalities were transferred from South Holland to Utrecht; Oudewater in 1970, Woerden in 1989, and Vianen in 2002.

The construction of the Nieuwe Waterweg in 1863 marked the start of the growth of the Port of Rotterdam. On 14 May 1940, during the Second World War, the centre of Rotterdam was destroyed by a German bombardment. The subsequent German occupation of the Netherlands resulted in anti-Jewish measures, and many members of Dutch resistance were captured and executed on the Waalsdorpervlakte. At the same time, the Atlantikwall was constructed along the coast. After the Second World War, in 1953, the south of South Holland was heavily struck by the North Sea flood, which took the lives of 677 South Hollanders. After this, the Dutch government decided for the construction of the Delta Works, which came to an end with the completion of the Maeslantkering in 1997.

The Netherlands' turbulent history and shifts of power resulted in exceptionally many and widely varying names in different languages. There is diversity even within languages. This holds also for English, where Dutch is the adjective form and the misnomer Holland a synonym for the country "Netherlands". Dutch comes from Theodiscus and in the past centuries, the hub of Dutch culture is found in its most populous region, Holland, home to the capital city of Amsterdam; government headquarters at The Hague; and Europe's largest port Rotterdam. Referring to the Netherlands as Holland in the English language is similar to calling the United Kingdom "England" by people outside the UK. The term is so pervasive among potential investors and tourists, however, that the Dutch government's international websites for tourism and trade are "holland.com" and "hollandtradeandinvest.com".

The region of Holland consists of North and South Holland, two of the nation's twelve provinces, formerly a single province, and earlier still, the County of Holland, a remnant of the dissolved Frisian Kingdom. Following the decline of the Duchy of Brabant and the County of Flanders, Holland became the most economically and politically important county in the Low Countries region. The emphasis on Holland during the formation of the Dutch Republic, the Eighty Years' War and the Anglo-Dutch Wars in the 16th, 17th and 18th century, made Holland serve as a pars pro toto for the entire country, which is now considered either incorrect, informal, or, depending on context, opprobrious. Nonetheless, Holland is widely used in reference to the Netherlands national football team.

The Holy Roman Empire (the successor state of East Francia and then Lotharingia) ruled much of the Low Countries in the 10th and 11th century, but was not able to maintain political unity. Powerful local nobles turned their cities, counties and duchies into private kingdoms, that felt little sense of obligation to the emperor. Holland, Hainaut, Flanders, Gelre, Brabant, and Utrecht were in a state of almost continual war or paradoxically formed personal unions. The language and culture of most of the people who lived in the County of Holland were originally Frisian. As Frankish settlement progressed from Flanders and Brabant, the area quickly became Old Low Franconian (or Old Dutch). The rest of Frisia in the north (now Friesland and Groningen) continued to maintain its independence and had its own institutions (collectively called the "Frisian freedom") and resented the imposition of the feudal system.

Around 1000 AD, due to several agricultural developments, the economy started to develop at a fast pace, and the higher productivity allowed workers to farm more land or to become tradesmen. Towns grew around monasteries and castles, and a mercantile middle class began to develop in these urban areas, especially in Flanders and later also Brabant. Wealthy cities started to buy certain privileges for themselves from the sovereign. In practice, this meant that Brugge and Antwerp became quasi-independent republics in their own right and would later develop into some of the most important cities and ports in Europe.

Around 1100 AD, farmers from Flanders and Utrecht began draining and cultivating uninhabited swampy land in the western Netherlands, and made the emergence of the County of Holland as centre of power possible. The title of Count of Holland were fought over in the Hook and Cod Wars (Dutch: Hoekse en Kabeljauwse twisten) between 1350 and 1490. The Cod faction consisted of the more progressive cities, while the Hook faction consisted of the conservative noblemen. These noblemen invited the Duke Philip the Good of Burgundy – who was also Count of Flanders – to conquer Holland.

The impact of disasters was to an extent increased through human activity. Relatively high-lying swampland was drained to be used as farmland. The drainage caused the fertile peat to contract and ground levels to drop, upon which groundwater levels were lowered to compensate for the drop in ground level, causing the underlying peat to contract further. Additionally, until the 19th century peat was mined, dried, and used for fuel, further exacerbating the problem. Centuries of extensive and poorly controlled peat extraction lowered an already low land surface by several metres. Even in flooded areas, peat extraction continued through turf dredging.

The history of Dutch foreign policy has been characterised by its neutrality. Since World War II, the Netherlands has become a member of a large number of international organisations, most prominently the UN, NATO and the EU. The Dutch economy is very open and relies strongly on international trade.

The foreign policy of the Netherlands is based on four basic commitments: to Atlantic co-operation, to European integration, to international development and to international law. One of the more controversial international issues surrounding the Netherlands is its liberal policy towards soft drugs.

During and after the Dutch Golden Age, the Dutch people built up a commercial and colonial empire. The most important colonies were present-day Suriname and Indonesia. Indonesia became independent after the Indonesian National Revolution in the 1940s following a war of independence, international pressure and several United Nations Security Council resolutions. Suriname became independent in 1975. The historical ties inherited from its colonial past still influence the foreign relations of the Netherlands. In addition, many people from these countries are living permanently in the Netherlands.

Education in the Netherlands is compulsory between the ages of 5 and 16. If a child does not have a "startqualification" (HAVO, VWO or MBO 2+ degree) they are still forced to follow classes until they achieve such a qualification.

All children in the Netherlands usually attend elementary school from (on average) ages 4 to 12. It comprises eight grades, the first of which is facultative. Based on an aptitude test, the eighth grade teacher's recommendation and the opinion of the pupil's parents or caretakers, a choice is made for one of the three main streams of secondary education. After completing a particular stream, a pupil may still continue in the penultimate year of the next stream.

The VMBO has 4 grades and is subdivided over several levels. Successfully completing the vmbo results in a low-level vocational degree that grants access to the MBO. The MBO (middle-level applied education) is a form of education primarily focuses on teaching a practical trade, or a vocational degree. With the MBO certification, a student can apply for the HBO. The HAVO has 5 grades and allows for admission to the HBO. The HBO (higher professional education) are universities of professional education (applied sciences) that award professional bachelor's degrees; similar to polytechnic degrees. A HBO degree gives access to the university system. The VWO (comprising atheneum and gymnasium) has 6 grades and prepares for studying at a research university. Universities offer of a three-year bachelor's degree, followed by a one or two year master's degree, which in turn can be followed by a four or five-year doctoral degree program.

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f g t y h g b s d j m j k i u j h y t g b g f rt e d s d f s t g f v f f a s w e d s x f g f v f s d g f v b g h n h y u j k i o l k i u j m n j h y t g f rt f v d f s y h g t rt f rt e d e w s x f g f v f g t y h g b s d j m j k i u j h y t g b g f rt e d s d f s t g f v f f a s w e d s x f g f v f s d g f v b g h n h y u j k i o l k i u j m n j h y t g f rt f v d f s y h g t rt f rt e d e w s x f g f v f g t y h g b s d j m j k i u j h y t g b g f rt e d s d f s t g f v f f a s w e d s x f g f v f s d g f v b g h n h y u j k i o l k i u j m n j h y t g f rt f v d f s y h g t rt f rt e d e w s x f g f v f g t y h g b s d j m j k i u j h y t g b g f rt e d s d f s t g f v f f a s w e d s x f g f v f s d g f v b g h n h y u j k i o l k i u j m n j h y t g f rt f v d f s y h g t rt f rt e d e w s x f g f v f g t y h g b s d j m j k i u j h y t g b g f rt e d s d f s t g f v f f a s w e d s x f g f v f s d g f v b g h n h y u j k i o l k i u j m n j h y t g f rt f v d f s y h g t rt f rt e d e w s x f g f v f g t y h g b s d j m j k i u j h y t g b g f rt e d s d f s t g f v f f a s w e d s x f g f v f s d g f v b g h n h y u j k i o l k i u j m n j h y t g f rt f v d f s y h g t rt f rt e d e w s x f g f v f g t y h g b s d j m j k i u j h y t g b g f rt e d s d f s t g f v f f a s w e d s x f g f v f s d g f v b g h n h y u j k i o l k i u j m n j h y t g f rt f v d f s y h g t rt f rt e d e w s x f g f v f g t y h g b s d j m j k i u j h y t g b g f rt e d s d f s t g f v f f a s w e d s x f g f v f s d g f v b g h n h y u j k i o l k i u j m n j h y t g f rt f v d f s y h g t rt f rt e d e w s x f g f v f g t y h g b s d j m j k i u j h y t g b g f rt e d s d f s t g f v f f a s w e d s x f g f v f s d g f v b g h n h y u j k i o l k i u j m n j h y t g f rt f v d f s y h g t rt f rt e d e w s x f g f v f g t y h g b s d j m j k i u j h y t g b g f rt e d s d f s t g f v f f a s w e d s x f g f v f s d g f v b g h n h y u j k i o l k i u j m n j h y t g f rt f v d f s y h g t rt f rt e d e w s x f g f v f g t y h g b s d j m j k i u j h y t g b g f rt e d s d f s t g f v f f a s w e d s x f g f v f s d g f v b g h n h y u j k i o l k i u j m n j h y t g f rt f v d f s y h g t rt f rt e d e w s x f g f v f g t y h g b s d j m j k i u j h y t g b g f rt e d s d f s t g f v f f a s w e d s x f g f v f s d g f v b g h n h y u j k i o l k i u j m n j h y t g f rt f v d f s y h g t rt f rt e d e w s x f g f v f g t y h g b s d j m j k i u j h y t g b g f rt e d s d f s t g f v f f a s w e d s x f g f v f s d g f v b g h n h y u j k i o l k i u j m n j h y t g f rt f v d f s y h g t rt f rt e d e w s x f g f v f g t y h g b s d j m j k i u j h y t g b g f rt e d s d f s t g f v f f a s w e d s x f g f v f s d g f v b g h n h y u j k i o l k i u j m n j h y t g f rt f v d f s y h g t rt f rt e d e w s x f g f v f g t y h g b s d j m j k i u j h y t g b g f rt e d s d f s t g f v f f a s w e d s x f g f v f s d g f v b g h n h y u j k i o l k i u j m n j h y t g f rt f v d f s y h g t rt f rt e d e w s x f g f v f g t y h g b s d j m j k i u j h y t g b g f rt e d s d f s t g f v f f a s w e d s x f g f v f s d g f v b g h n h y u j k i o l k i u j m n j h y t g f rt f v d f s y h g t rt f rt e d e w s x f g f v f g t y h g b s d j m j k i u j h y t g b g f rt e d s d f s t g f v f f a s w e d s x f g f v f s d g f v b g h n h y u j k i o l k i u j m n j h y t g f rt f v d f s y h g t rt f rt e d e w s x f g f v f g t y h g b s d j m j k i u j h y t g b g f rt e d s d f s t g f v f f a s w e d s x f g f v f s d g f v b g h n h y u j k i o l k i u j m n j h y t g f rt f v d f s y h g t rt f rt e d e w s x f g f v f g t y h g b s d j m j k i u j h y t g b g f rt e d s d f s t g f v f f a s w e d s x f g f v f s d g f v b g h n h y u j k i o l k i u j m n j h y t g f rt f v d f s y h g t rt f rt e d e w s x f g f v f g t y h g b s d j m j k i u j h y t g b g f rt e d s d f s t g f v f f a s w e d s x f g f v f s d g f v b g h n h y u j k i o l k i u j m n j h y t g f rt f v d f s y h g t rt f rt e d e w s x f g f v f g t y h g b s d j m j k i u j h y t g b g f rt e d s d f s t g f v f f a s w e d s x f g f v f s d g f v b g h n h y u j k i o l k i u j m n j h y t g f rt f v d f s y h g t rt f rt e d e w s x f g f v f g t y h g b s d j m j k i u j h y t g b g f rt e d s d f s t g f v f f a s w e d s x f g f v f s d g f v b g h n h y u j k i o l k i u j m n j h y t g f rt f v d f s y h g t rt f rt e d e w s x f g f v f g t y h g b s d j m j k i u j h y t g b g f rt e d s d f s t g f v f f a s w e d s x f g f v f s d g f v b g h n h y u j k i o l k i u j m n j h y t g f rt f v d f s y h g t rt f rt e d e w s x f g f v f g t y h g b s d j m j k i u j h y t g b g f rt e d s d f s t g f v f f a s w e d s x f g f v f s d g f v b g h n h y u j k i o l k i u j m n j h y t g f rt f v d f s y h g t rt f rt e d e w s x f g f v f g t y h g b s d j m j k i u j h y t g b g f rt e d s d f s t g f v f f a s w e d s x f g f v f s d g f v b g h n h y u j k i o l k i u j m n j h y t g f rt f v d f s y h g t rt f rt e d e w s x f g f v f g t y h g b s d j m j k i u j h y t g b g f rt e d s d f s t g f v f f a s w e d s x f g f v f s d g f v b g h n h y u j k i o l k i u j m n j h y t g f rt f v d f s y h g t rt f rt e d e w s x f g f v f g t y h g b s d j m j k i u j h y t g b g f rt e d s d f s t g f v f f a s w e d s x f g f v f s d g f v b g h n h y u j k i o l k i u j m n j h y t g f rt f v d f s y h g t rt f rt e d e w s x f g f v f g t y h g b s d j m j k i u j h y t g b g f rt e d s d f s t g f v f f a s w e d s x f g f v f s d g f v b g h n h y u j k i o l k i u j m n j h y t g f rt f v d f s y h g t rt f rt e d e w s x f g f v f g t y h g b s d j m j k i u j h y t g b g f rt e d s d f s t g f v f f a s w e d s x f g f v f s d g f v b g h n h y u j k i o l k i u j m n j h y t g f rt f v d f s y h g t rt f rt e d e w s x f g f v f g t y h g b s d j m j k i u j h y t g b g f rt e d s d f s t g f v f f a s w e d s x f g f v f s d g f v b g h n h y u j k i o l k i u j m n j h y t g f rt f v d f s y h g t rt f rt e d e w s x f g f v f g t y h g b s d j m j k i u j h y t g b g f rt e d s d f s t g f v f f a s w e d s x f g f v f s d g f v b g h n h y u j k i o l k i u j m n j h y t g f rt f v d f s y h g t rt f rt e d e w s x f g f v f g t y h g b s d j m j k i u j h y t g b g f rt e d s d f s t g f v f f a s w e d s x f g f v f s d g f v b g h n h y u j k i o l k i u j m n j h y t g f rt f v d f s y h g t rt f rt e d e w s x f g f v f g t y h g b s d j m j k i u j h y t g b g f rt e d s d f s t g f v f f a s w e d s x f g f v f s d g f v b g h n h y u j k i o l k i u j m n j h y t g f rt f v d f s y h g t rt f rt e d e w s x f g f v f g t y h g b s d j m j k i u j h y t g b g f rt e d s d f s t g f v f f a s w e d s x f g f v f s d g f v b g h n h y u j k i o l k i u j m n j h y t g f rt f v d f s y h g t rt f rt e d e w s x f g f v f g t y h g b s d j m j k i u j h y t g b g f rt e d s d f s t g f v f f a s w e d s x f g f v f s d g f v b g h n h y u j k i o l k i u j m n j h y t g f rt f v d f s y h g t rt f rt e d e w s x f g f v f g t y h g b s d j m j k i u j h y t g b g f rt e d s d f s t g f v f f a s w e d s x f g f v f s d g f v b g h n h y u j k i o l k i u j m n j h y t g f rt f v d f s y h g t rt f rt e d e w s x f g f v f g t y h g b s d j m j k i u j h y t g b g f rt e d s d f s t g f v f f a s w e d s x f g f v f s d g f v b g h n h y u j k i o l k i u j m n j h y t g f rt f v d f s y h g t rt f rt e d e w s x f g f v f g t y h g b s d j m j k i u j h y t g b g f rt e d s d f s t g f v f f a s w e d s x f g f v f s d g f v b g h n h y u j k i o l k i u j m n j h y t g f